Main takeaways:   The EU, and its members, share a basic ‘set of beliefs, values and norms towards the use of military force’ with foundations in the EU’s policies and adherence to international law. There is a difference in nature between the Union’s and member states’ strategic culture. Whereas states develop strategic cultures from historical experiences,…

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Main takeaways:   Propaganda and disinformation are not new phenomena, but 30 years ago there was not yet technology which allows them to be spread at such speed and with so little transparency. Present-day disinformation and foreign interference present real threats to democratic societies. A strong rules-based EU response is needed to even the playing field…

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